Introduction to the Human Body. Essential reading for those who have not done ANHB and / or ANHB In this chapter: • “The Anatomical position”. Discovery Pictures and the Brit ish Broadcast i ng Corporat ion have partnered to bring you The Human Body, a rema rkable la rge - format film that bri ngs a. THE HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS. System. Function. Diagram. Major Organs. Interactions-. Working with Other. Systems. Digestive. 1. take in food. (ingestion).

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human body. You can also begin to see the interconnections between the different parts of the body in order to understand how the body functions. We should. This PDF learning package is designed to be viewed in Acrobat. If you are using the . There are four types of tissues in the human body: • muscle tissue. 2. identify and describe characteristics of the human body. 3. using a body diagram: a. explain how the heart pumps blood throughout the body b. describe the.

Enclosed by a protective sac called pericardium. Wall of heart made up of — epicardium, myocardium, endocardium. Blood low in oxygen enters right atrium from superior and inferior venae cavae.

From here it passes to the right ventricle. From here it is sent to the lungs, where it receives oxygen and gives off CO2. Oxygenated blood returns to the left atrium and passes to the left ventricle. From here it leaves heart through the aorta.

The heart is a fist-sized organ that is placed in the middle of the chest cavity.

It is slightly offset to the left. The left heart is stronger so heartbeats felt more strongly on the left. Important Facts About Arteries Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. Most carry oxygenated blood. Exceptions are pulmonary and umbilical arteries. Important Facts About Veins Blood vessels that carry blood towards the heart. Most carry deoxygenated blood from tissues.

Exceptions are pulmonary and umbilical veins. Less muscular than arteries and closer to skin. Valves in veins prevent backflow. Important Facts About Capillaries Smallest blood vessels in the human body. Makeup microcirculation. They connect arterioles and venules. Help enable the exchange of O2, CO2, other nutrients and waste substances between blood and tissues. Lymph capillaries drain lymph from lymph vessels.

Circulatory system — Lymphatic system Important Facts About Lymphatic vessel Thin-walled, valved structures that carry lymph. Lymph is a fluid that lies between body tissues. Important Facts About Lymph node Oval or kidney-shaped organ. Present at multiple locations throughout the body including armpits, neck, and groin.

Important for the proper functioning of the immune system. Act as filters for foreign particles and cancer cells. Red blood cells produced by the bone marrow in heads of long bones. Bone marrow is a key component of the lymphatic system.

Important Facts About Thymus The specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system. Within the thymus, T cells or T lymphocytes mature. These are key to the adaptive immune system. Consists of two identical lobes located in front of the heart. Important Facts About Spleen Similar in structure to the large lymph node.

Acts as a blood filter. Removes old red blood cells and holds a reserve of blood. It recycles iron. It also synthesizes antibodies in its white pulp.

Functions and anatomy of Human Body — Nervous system Important Facts About Brain The main organ of the human central nervous system and the human body. Located in head, protected by the skull. Composed neurons, glial cells, and blood vessels. Divided into three parts — forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. The cerebral cortex is so large that it overshadows all other parts of the human brain. Three parts of the cerebral cortex — cerebrum forebrain , cerebellum hindbrain , and brainstem.

There are two hemispheres in the brain — left and right. The mind is an emergent property of the brain. Consists of — Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla Oblongata. Medulla Oblongata is responsible for involuntary functions like sneezing, breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, etc. Pons has a role in sleep and dreams. Also deals with swallowing, bladder control, equilibrium, hearing, taste, eye movement, facial expressions, and posture.

Important Facts About Cerebellum Important in motor control, cognitive functions like language and attention. Also regulates fear and pleasure responses. Important Facts About Spinal cord Long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells. Extends from brainstem to pelvis. Brain and spinal cord together make up central nervous system. Important Facts About Nerves Enclosed, cable-like bundles of axons nerve fibers. Part of the peripheral nervous system.

My good friend and collaborator John L. Crawley has continued to be supportive of my writing endeavors. The visual appeal and accuracy provided by quality photographs and illustrations are essential in an anatomy text. I have enjoyed my years of professional interaction with Christopher Creek, the talented artist who rendered many of the illustrations in the previous editions and a number of new ones for this edition.

His anatomical art is engaging and realistic. Gary M. Watts, Department of Radiology at the Utah Valley Regional Medical Center, provided many of the radiographic images used in the previous editions of this text and some new ones for this edition.

Thanks are also extended to Don Kincaid and Rebecca Gray of Ohio State University, who dissected and photographed the new cadaver images for this edition. Sincere gratitude is extended to the editors at McGrawHill for their talent, dedication, and encouragement of my efforts.

Both of these people spent countless hours attending the myriad details that a technical text such as this involves. Cupp, Jr. Ebeling Biola University Charles A. Ferguson University of Colorado at Denver. McGraw-Hill dutifully assembled a panel of competent anatomists to review the previous text and the new manuscript as it was being developed for the sixth edition. These professionals aided my work immeasurably, and I am especially grateful for their frank criticism, comments, and reassurance.

David K. Gorelick Citrus College Douglas J. Miller Eastern Illinois University. Virginia L. Williams Southeastern Oklahoma State University. A page-referenced preview of major topics is included on the opening page of each chapter, allowing you to see at a glance what the upcoming chapter covers. Clinical Case Study A hypothetical medical situation sets the stage for the chapter by underscoring the clinical relevance of the chapter content. As you read the chapter, watch for the background information needed to solve the case study, then check your answer against the solution given at the end of the chapter.

A young woman was hit by a car while crossing a street. Upon arrival at the scene, paramedics found the patient to be a bit dazed but reasonably lucid, complaining of pain in her abdomen and the left side of her chest. Otherwise, her vital signs were within normal limits. Initial evaluation in the emergency room revealed a very tender abdomen and left chest.

The chest radiograph demonstrated a collapsed left lung resulting from air in the pleural space pneumothorax. The emergency room physician inserted a drainage tube into the left chest into the pleural space to treat the pneumothorax. Attention was then turned to the abdomen. Because of the finding of tenderness, a peritoneal lavage was performed. This procedure involves penetrating the abdominal wall and inserting a tube into the peritoneal cavity.

Clear fluid such as sterile water or normal saline is then instilled into the abdomen and siphoned out again.

The fluid used in this procedure is called lavage fluid. A return of lavage fluid containing blood, fecal matter, or bile indicates injury to an abdominal organ that requires surgery.

The return of lavage fluid from this patient was clear. However, the nurse stated that lavage fluid was draining out of the chest tube. From what you know about how the various body cavities are organized, do you suppose this phenomenon could be explained based on normal anatomy? What might have caused it to occur in our patient? Does the absence of bile, blood, etc. If it does not, explain why in terms of the relationship of the various organs to the membranes within the abdomen. Histology is the specialty of anatomy that involves study of the microscopic structure of tissues.

Tissues are assigned to four basic categories on the basis of their cellular composition and histological appearance. Concept Statement A carefully worded expression of the main idea, or organizing principle, of the information contained in a chapter section gives you a quick overview of the material that will follow.

Describe the functional relationship between cells and tissues. List the four principal tissue types and briefly describe the functions of each type. Learning Objectives Each chapter section begins with a set of learning objectives that indicate the level of competency you should attain in order to thoroughly understand the concept and apply it in practical situations.

Vocabulary Aids New terms appear in boldface print as they are introduced and immediately defined in context. Definitions and phonetic pronunciations for boldfaced terms are gathered in the glossary at the end of the book.

The Greek or Latin derivations of many terms are provided in footnotes at the bottom of the page on which the term first appears. Although cells are the structural and functional units of the body, the cells of a complex multicellular organism are so specialized that they do not function independently.

Tissues are aggregations of similar cells and cell products that perform specific functions. The various types of tissues are established during early embryonic development. As the embryo grows, organs form from specific arrangements of tissues. Many adult organs, including the heart, brain and muscles, contain the original cells and tissues that were formed prenatally, although some functional changes occur in the tissues as they are acted upon by hormones or as their effectiveness diminishes with age.

The study of tissues is referred to as histology. It provides a foundation for understanding the microscopic structure and functions of the organs discussed in the chapters that follow. Many diseases profoundly alter the tissues within an affected organ; therefore, by knowing the normal tissue structure, a physician can recognize the abnormal. In medical schools a course in histology is usually followed by a course in pathology, the study of abnormal tissues in diseased organs.

Although histologists employ many different techniques for preparing, staining, and sectioning tissues, only two basic kinds of microscopes are used to view the prepared tissues. The light microscope is used to observe overall tissue structure fig. Most of the histological photomicrographs in this text are at the light microscopic level. However, where fine structural detail is needed to understand a particular function, electron micrographs are used.

Matrix varies in composition from one tissue to another and may take the form of a liquid, semisolid, or solid. Blood, for example,. By contrast, bone cells are separated by a solid matrix, permitting this tissue to support the body. The tissues of the body are assigned to four principal types on the basis of structure and function: Knowledge Check 1. Define tissue and explain why histology is important to the study of anatomy, physiology, and medicine.

Cells are the functional units of the body. Explain how the matrix permits specific kinds of cells to be even more effective and functional as tissues. What are the four principal kinds of body tissues?

What are the basic functions of each type? Human anatomy is a visual science, and realistic art is essential. Vibrant four-color illustrations are often paired with photographs, reinforcing the detail conveyed in the drawings with direct comparisons of actual structures.

Right kidney Celiac trunk Common hepatic artery Superior mesenteric artery Right common iliac artery. Atlas-Quality Cadaver Images Precisely labeled photographs of dissected human cadavers provide detailed views of human anatomy that allow students concrete visualization of anatomical structures and their position relative to other parts of the body.

Illustrated Tables Selected tables combine artwork with summarized content to provide comprehensive topic coverage in an easy-tofollow format. Postganglionic neurons in the ciliary ganglia behind the eyes, in turn, stimulate constrictor fibers in the iris. Contraction of the ciliary body during accommodation also involves stimulation of the superior colliculi. For visual information to have meaning, it must be associated with past experience and integrated with information from other senses.

Some of this higher processing occurs in the inferior temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex. Experimental removal of these areas from monkeys impairs their ability to remember visual tasks that they previously learned and hinders their ability to associate visual images with the significance of the objects viewed. Monkeys with their inferior temporal lobes removed, for example, will fearlessly handle a snake.

In an attempt to reduce the symptoms of severe epilepsy, surgeons at one time would cut the corpus callosum in some patients.

This fiber tract, as previously described, transmits impulses between the right and left cerebral hemispheres. The right cerebral hemisphere of patients with such split brains would therefore, receive sensory information only from the left half of the external world. The left hemisphere, similarly cut off from communication with the right hemisphere, would receive sensory information only from the right half of the external world.

In some situations, these patients would behave as if they had two separate minds. Experiments with split-brain patients have revealed that the two hemispheres have separate abilities. This is true even though each hemisphere normally receives input from both halves of the external world through the corpus callosum. If the sensory image of an object, such as a key, is delivered only to the left hemisphere by showing it only to the right visual field , the object can be named.

If the object is presented to the right cerebral cortex, the person knows what the object is but cannot name it. Experiments such as this suggest that in right-handed people the left hemisphere is needed for language and the right hemisphere is responsible for pattern recognition.

TABLE Location Extends downward into the longitudinal fissure to partition the right and left cerebral hemispheres; anchored anteriorly to the crista galli of the ethmoid bone and posteriorly to the tentorium Separates the occipital and temporal lobes of the cerebrum from the cerebellum; anchored to the tentorium, petrous parts of the temporal bones, and occipital bone Partitions the right and left cerebellar hemispheres; anchored to the occipital crest Forms the roof of the sella turcica.

Topic Icons Topic icons highlight information of practical application and special interest. These commentaries reinforce the importance of learning the preceding facts.

The five icon images and the topics they represent are: Knowledge Check Placed at the end of each major section, Knowledge Check questions help you test your understanding of the material and encourage concept application. An overlapping of the visual field of each eye provides binocular vision—the ability to perceive depth. Two types of eye movements are coordinated by the superior colliculi. Smooth pursuit movements track moving objects and keep the image focused on the fovea centralis.

These saccadic movements are believed to be important in maintaining visual acuity. The tectal system is also involved in the control of the intrinsic ocular muscles—the smooth muscles of the iris and of the ciliary body. Shining a light into one eye stimulates the pupillary reflex in which both pupils constrict. This is caused by activation of parasym-. List the accessory structures of the eye that either cause the eye to move or protect it within the orbit.

Diagram the structure of the eye and label the following: What are the principal cells or tissues in each of the three layers of the eye? Trace the path of light through the two cavities of the eye and explain the mechanism of light refraction. Describe how the eye is focused for viewing distant and near objects. List the different layers of the retina and describe the path of light and of nerve activity through these layers. Continue tracing the path of a visual impulse to the cerebral cortex, and list in order the structures traversed.

Bucy, American neurologist, b. Bone tissue derives from specialized migratory cells of mesoderm see fig. Most of the skeleton is formed in this fashion—first it goes through a hyaline cartilage stage and then it is ossified as bone. A smaller number of mesenchymal cells develop into bone directly, without first going through a cartilage stage.

The clavicles, facial bones, and chondroblast: Developmental Expositions Each systems chapter includes a discussion of the morphogenic events involved in the prenatal development of the profiled body system. Sesamoid bones are specialized intramembranous bones that develop in tendons. The patella is an example of a sesamoid bone. Three aspects of the embryonic skull are involved in this process: The chondrocranium is the portion of the skull that undergoes endochondral ossification to form the bones supporting the brain.

The neurocranium is the portion of the skull that develops through membranous ossification to form the bones covering the brain and facial region.

The viscerocranium splanchnocranium is the portion that develops from the embryonic visceral arches to form the mandible, auditory ossicles, the hyoid bone, and specific processes of the skull. The cartilaginous portions of the skeleton are shown in gray. Clinical Considerations These special sections appearing at the end of most chapters describe selected developmental disorders, diseases, or dysfunctions of specific organ systems, as well as relevant clinical procedures.

The effects of aging in regard to specific body systems are also profiled.

Numerous diseases and developmental problems directly involve the nervous system, and the nervous system is indirectly involved with most of the diseases that afflict the body because of the location and activity of sensory pain receptors.

Pain receptors are free nerve endings that are present throughout living tissue. The pain sensations elicited by disease or trauma are important in localizing and diagnosing specific diseases or dysfunctions. Only a few of the many clinical considerations of the central nervous system will be discussed here.

These include neurological assessment and drugs, developmental problems, injuries, infections and diseases, and degenerative disorders. Neurological Assessment and Drugs Neurological assessment has become exceedingly sophisticated and accurate in the past few years.

In a basic physical examination, only the reflexes and sensory functions are assessed. But if the physician suspects abnormalities involving the nervous system, further neurological tests may be done, employing the following techniques.

A lumbar puncture is performed by inserting a fine needle between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae and withdrawing a sample of CSF from the subarachnoid space fig. A cisternal puncture is similar to a lumbar puncture except that the CSF is withdrawn from a cisterna at the base of the skull, near the foramen magnum.

The pressure of the CSF, which is normally about 10 mmHg, is measured with a manometer. Samples of CSF may also be examined for abnormal constituents. In addition, excessive fluid, accumulated as a result of disease or trauma, may be drained.

In this technique, a radiopaque substance is injected into the common carotid arteries and allowed to disperse through the cerebral vessels.

Aneurysms and vascular constrictions or displacements by tumors may then be revealed on radiographs. The development of the CT scanner, or computerized axial tomographic scanner, has revolutionized the diagnosis of brain disorders.

The versatile CT scanner allows quick and accurate diagnoses of tumors, aneurysms, blood clots, and hemorrhage. The CT scanner may also be used to detect certain types of birth defects, brain damage, scar tissue, and evidence of old or recent strokes. A machine with even greater potential than the CT scanner is the DSR, or dynamic spatial reconstructor. However, with the DSR, a threedimensional view is obtained, and the image is produced much faster than with the CT scanner. With that speed, body functions as well as structures may be studied.

Blood flow through vessels of the brain can be observed. These types of data are important in detecting early symptoms of a stroke or other disorders. Certain disorders of the brain may be diagnosed more simply by examining brain-wave patterns using an electroencephalogram see Table Sensitive electrodes placed on the scalp record particular EEG patterns being emitted from evoked cerebral activity.

EEG recordings are used to monitor epileptic patients to predict seizures and to determine proper drug therapy, and also to monitor comatose patients. The fact that the nervous system is extremely sensitive to various drugs is fortunate; at the same time, this sensitivity has potential for disaster.

Drug abuse is a major clinical concern because of the addictive and devastating effect that certain drugs have on the nervous system. Much has been written on drug abuse, and it is beyond the scope of this text to elaborate on the effects of drugs. A positive aspect of drugs is their administration in medicine to temporarily interrupt the passage or perception of sensory impulses.

Injecting an anesthetic drug near a nerve, as in dentistry, desensitizes a specific area and causes a nerve block. Nerve blocks of a limited extent occur if an appendage is cooled or if a nerve is compressed for a period of time. Before the. Clinical Practicums These focused clinical scenarios challenge you to put your knowledge of anatomy to work in a clinical setting.

Given a brief patient history and accompanying diagnostic images, you must apply the chapter material to diagnose a condition, explain the origin of symptoms, or even recommend a course of treatment. An electrocardiogram is also normal. Because of his symptoms, you suspect an aortic dissection and order a CT scan. What is the dark line noted within the contrast-filled aorta?

Which portions of the aorta are involved? You also note that the patient has a difference in blood pressure between the left and right arm, with the left arm having a significantly lower blood pressure.

What could be the cause? AA MPA. Chapter Summary Introduction to the Digestive System pp. The digestive system mechanically and chemically breaks down food to forms that can be absorbed through the intestinal wall and transported by the blood and lymph for use at the cellular level. The digestive system consists of a gastrointestinal GI tract and accessory digestive organs. Movements of the small intestine include rhythmic segmentation, pendular movement, and peristalsis.

At the end of each chapter, a summary in outline form reinforces your mastery of the chapter content. Review Activities Objective Questions 1. Viscera are the only body organs that are a concerned with digestion. Which of the following types of teeth are found in the permanent but not in the deciduous dentition?

The double layer of peritoneum that supports the GI tract is called a the visceral peritoneum. Which of the following tissue layers in the small intestine contains the lacteals? Which of the following organs is not considered a part of the digestive system?

The numerous small elevations on the surface of the tongue that support taste buds and aid in handling food are called a cilia.

Most digestion occurs in a the mouth. Stenosis constriction of the sphincter of ampulla of Oddi would interfere with a transport of bile and pancreatic juice. The first organ to receive the blood-borne products of digestion is a the liver. Objective, essay, and critical thinking questions at the end of each chapter allow you to test the depth of your understanding and learning.

Answers and explanations to the objective questions are given in Appendix A. The incisors and canines have one root each; the bicuspids and molars have two or three roots. Fibers in the periodontal membrane insert into the cementum covering the roots, firmly anchoring the teeth in the sockets. Peritoneal membranes line the abdominal d The interior of a tooth contains a wall and cover the visceral organs. The pulp cavity, which is continuous GI tract is supported by a double layer of through the apical foramen of the peritoneum called the mesentery.

The major salivary glands are the parotid extend from the stomach. The muscular pharynx provides a 2. The layers tunics of the abdominal GI passageway connecting the oral and nasal tract are, from the inside outward, the cavities to the esophagus and larynx. Which of the following statements about Describe the location and gross structure and serosa. Draw aEsophagus labeled diagram a simple a It contains absorbed a fat. The mucosa consists of a liver lobule. Swallowing deglutition occurs in three columnar epithelium, a thin layer of b It contains ingested proteins.

Describe how the gallbladder is and filled with structures of the oral phases involves connective the lamina c It is mixed with bile in the liver. What pharynx, is the and esophagus.

Peristaltic waves of contraction push food muscle called the muscularis hepatic artery in the liver. List the functions of the through large intestine.

What are the biomechanical movements into the stomach. It displays greater and 1. Define digestion. Differentiate between consists of layers muscularis of Define cirrhosis and explain why this lesser curvatures, and contains a pyloric the mechanical and chemical aspectsmuscle; of smooth and the serosa is condition is so devastating to the liver. Distinguish between the gastrointestinal covered with the visceral peritoneum. List the specific portions or structures ofcontains the 1.

Technically, notand in the muscularis myenteric ingested food ispits the mucosa. Neither are feces excreted from plexus nerves. Define serous membrane. How are the and Associated Explain these statements. Why would thisand the principal cells Mouth, Pharynx, serous membranes of the abdominal a drug pepsinogen. Structures pp. The oral cavity is formed by the cheeks, functions? Small Intestine pp. The 5. Describe the structures of the four tunics 2. Do you duodenum, jejunum, and ileum; the oral cavity.

Why are there two autonomic agree or disagree with this statement? Identifytonsils the and papillae Explain. Which surgery do you think would have 2. Fingerlike extensions of mucosa, called b Structures of the palate include the tunic layers.

Define the terms dental formula, a removal of the stomach and gastrectomy , at the bases of the intestinal villi the projection called the palatine uvula, diphyodont, deciduous teeth, permanent b removal of the pancreas mucosa forms intestinal glands.

Outline the stages of deglutition. What gallbladder cholecystectomy? Explain intestinal crypts.

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Describe the adaptations of the GI tract bone perform in deglutition? How does the stomach protect itself from increasing the surface area for absorption the damaging effects of HCl? Describe the kinds of movements in the food particles and digestive enzymes.

During surgery to determine the cause of accomplish. Diagram an intestinal villus and explain surgeon elect to remove a healthy why intestinal villi are considered the appendix? Explain why a ruptured appendix may What are the regions of the large result in peritonitis, while an inflamed intestine?

In what portion of the kidney nephritis generally does not abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity is each result in peritonitis. Large Intestine pp. The large intestine absorbs water and electrolytes from the chyme and passes fecal material out of the body through the rectum and anal canal.

The large intestine is divided into the cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal. Movements of the large intestine include peristalsis, haustral churning, and mass movement.

Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas pp.

The liver is divided into right, left, quadrate, and caudate lobes. Each lobe contains liver lobules, the functional units of the liver. The gallbladder stores and concentrates the bile; it releases the bile through the cystic duct and common bile duct into the duodenum. The pancreas is both an exocrine and an endocrine gland. Visit our Online Learning Center at http: This online resource offers an extensive array of learning tools that are tailored to coincide with each chapter of the text.

Learning Activities Among the activities awaiting you at the OLC are chapter quizzes, crossword puzzles, art labeling exercises, vocabulary flashcards, and animation-based activities. In addition, the OLC offers numerous case studies and clinical applications, cutting-edge online reference materials, and links to related anatomy and physiology Internet sites.

Essential Study Partner This interactive study tool contains hundreds of animations and learning activities designed to help you grasp complex concepts.

Interactive diagrams and quizzes make learning anatomy and physiology stimulating and fun. You can dissect the body layer by layer, or use a scroll bar to navigate up to a depth of layers. You can also highlight a specific structure for an in-depth study or search by anatomical term to locate all instances of a structure. Other features include an alphabetized glossary and labeled structures for easy identification. Keep abreast of breaking news by clicking the latest scientific headlines from The New York Times or links to prominent journals in the Briefing Room.

Visit the Student Center to ask a question on the discussion boards, brush up on test-taking tips, or perform job and internship searches.

Conduct a virtual laboratory experiment at BioLabs, or head to The Quad to browse the vast array of rich, multimedia content specific to your course. Clinical Case Study A year-old women visits the village apothecary for her increasing shortness of breath. Within hours, the patient is feeling much better and breathing easily. The experience reinforces to the doctor the concept of evil humors and the effectiveness of bloodletting as a therapy.

Dropsy L. Current therapy for this condition is oral fluid restriction and medications that induce diuresis increased urination with the ultimate goal of decreasing fluid volume. It is no wonder that losing a pint of blood made this woman feel better in the short term. Unfortunately, repeated courses of this crude therapy left patients profoundly anemic low red blood cell count and actually worsened their heart failure.

Throughout medical history, how has an accurate understanding of human anatomy and physiology led to better disease therapy?

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Blood letting was a technique of medical practice widely used for over two thousand years. The descriptive anatomical terminology is principally of Greek and Latin derivation. Human anatomy is the science concerned with the structure of the human body. The science of physiology is concerned with the function of the body. It is inseparable from anatomy in that structure tends to reflect function. Anatomy and physiology are both subdivisions of the science of biology, the study of living organisms.

The anatomy of every structure of the body is adapted for performing a function, or perhaps several functions. Every beginning anatomy student can discover and learn firsthand as the structures of the body are systematically dissected and examined.

The anatomical terms that a student learns while becoming acquainted with a structure represent the work of hundreds of dedicated anatomists of the past, who have dissected, diagrammed, described, and named the multitude of body parts.

Most of the terms that form the language of anatomy are of Greek or Latin derivation. Latin was the language of the Roman Empire, during which time an interest in scientific description was cultivated.

As a consequence, if one is familiar with the basic prefixes and suffixes see the inside front cover of this text , many of the terms in the descriptive science of anatomy can be understood. Although the Greeks and Romans made significant contributions to anatomical terminology, it should be noted that many individuals from other cultures have also contributed to the science of human anatomy.

As a scientific field of inquiry, human anatomy has had a rich, long, and frequently troubled heritage. The history of human anatomy parallels that of medicine. In fact, interest in.

Various religions, on the other hand, have at one time or another stifled the study of human anatomy through their restrictions on human dissections and their emphasis on nonscientific explanations for diseases and debilitations. The Greeks esteemed athletic competition and expressed the beauty of the body in their sculptures.

Many of the great masters of the Renaissance portrayed human figures in their art. Indeed, several of these artists were excellent anatomists because their preoccupation with detail demanded it.

Such an artistic genius was Michelangelo, who captured the splendor of the human form in sculpture with the David fig.

How noble in reason! In form and moving, how express and admirable!

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In action how like an angel! In apprehension how like a god! The beauty of the world! The paragon of animals! In the past, human anatomy was an academic, purely descriptive science, concerned primarily with identifying and naming body structures.

Although dissection and description form the basis of anatomy, the importance of human anatomy today is in its functional approach and clinical applications.

Anatomy of the Human Body

Human anatomy is a practical, applied science that provides the foundation for understanding physical performance and body health. Studying the history of anatomy helps us appreciate the relevant science that it is today. What is the derivation and meaning of anatomy? Explain the statement, Anatomy is a science based on observation, whereas physiology is based on experimentation and observation. Why does understanding the biology of an organism depend on knowing its anatomy and physiology?

Discuss the value of using established Greek or Latin prefixes and suffixes in naming newly described body structures. Explain why an understanding of human anatomy is essential in the science of medicine. Define trepanation and paleopathology.

Sculpted from a single block of white. It is likely that a type of practical comparative anatomy is the oldest science. Our prehistoric ancestors undoubtedly knew their own functional abilities and limitations as compared to those of other animals.

Prehistoric people needed a practical knowledge of anatomy simply for survival. Presumably the location of the heart is drawn on the mammoth.

Dover Publications. Certain surgical skills are also ancient. They knew that if an animal was wounded. They knew that their own bones could be broken through accidents. Van De Graaff: Human Anatomy. The skin from mammals with its associated fur served as a protective covering for their own sparsely haired skin.

New York. Trepanation was probably used as a ritualistic procedure to release evil spirits. The butchering of an animal following the kill provided many valuable anatomy lessons for prehistoric people. Reprinted by permission. The knowledge these people had was of the basic. Trepanated skulls have been found repeatedly in archaeological sites fig.

What is known about prehistoric humans is conjectured through information derived from cave drawings. They used the bones from the animals on which they fed to fashion a variety of tools and weapons. Paleopathology is the science concerned with studying diseases and causes of trepanation: Historical Perspective 1. Through the trial and error of hunting. Early humans knew that the skeletal system formed a durable framework within their bodies and those of other vertebrates. Perhaps they also realized that a severe blow to the head could cause deep sleep and debilitate an animal without killing it.

Sixth Edition I. Judging from the partial reossification in some of these skulls. What types of data might a paleopathologist be interested in obtaining from an Egyptian mummy? What cannot be determined. Has four lobes. Can be fractured. Can be regenerated from the part. Important Facts About Gallbladder Stores bile before being released into the small intestine. Can survive without gall bladder. Three parts — fundus, body, neck.

Important Facts About Pancreas An endocrine gland that produces several important hormones. Chief among these hormones are insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide. It also secretes digestive enzymes called pancreatic juices. Insulin is produced from near the area called Islets of Langerhans. Divided into two by vertical fin called nasal septum.

Important Facts About Larynx Involved in protecting trachea, manipulating pitch and volume of sound. Important Facts About Trachea The cartilaginous tube that connects larynx and pharynx to the lungs. Important Facts About Bronchi The airway in the respiratory tract that allows air into the lungs. Primary bronchus — right and left. These branch into smaller secondary and tertiary bronchi.

No gas exchange takes place in bronchi.

Important Facts About Lungs Primary respiratory organs. Two lungs left and right — each divided into two lobes. They extract oxygen from the atmosphere and transfer to the bloodstream.

They release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere. The right lung is bigger than the left lung. Protected by the ribcage. The primary muscle that drives breathing. Separates thoracic cavity containing the heart and lungs from the abdominal cavity. Also removes excessive organic molecules from the blood.

Thus it removes waste products of metabolism. Also produce hormones — renin, calcitriol, and erythropoietin.

Parts of the body

Two bean-shaped organs made up of cells called nephrons. Important Facts About Ureters Tubes that take urine from kidneys to the bladder.

Important Facts About Bladder The hollow muscle that collects urine from kidneys before urination. Typical capacity of the bladder is between and ml. Important Facts About Urethra The tube that connects the urinary bladder to urinary meatus. It helps in the removal of fluids from the body. Reproductive organs — Female reproductive system Important Facts About Ovaries Produces and periodically releases eggs in the female body.

They are both gonads and endocrine glands. They secrete estrogen, testosterone, progesterone. They allow passage of eggs from the ovaries to the uterus. Important Facts About Uterus It is a hormone-responsive reproductive sex organ in females. Aka womb. One end connects to the fallopian tubes. The other end, the cervix, opens into the vagina. It is within the uterus that the egg is fertilized, and the fetus is developed.

Important Facts About Vagina It is the opening of the female genital tract. It allows for sexual intercourse, childbirth and channels menstrual flow. Important Facts About Vulva This is the external genital organ of the woman. Important Facts About Clitoris It is a female sex organ.

Important Facts About Placenta Aka afterbirth. The organ that connects developing fetus to the uterine wall. Reproductive organs — Male reproductive system Important Facts About Testes They are the male gonads producing sperms.

They are also endocrine glands producing androgens, primarily testosterone. Typically there are two. It is an exocrine gland in males. Important Facts About Penis It is the external male sexual organ.

It also serves as the urinal duct. Important Facts About Scrotum It is the male reproductive organ. It consists of a pair of suspended sacs. It is an endocrine gland, the size of a pea. It is found at the base of the brain.This interesting information is relevant to the discussion that precedes it, but more important, it demonstrates how basic scientific knowledge is applied. The left hemisphere, similarly cut off from communication with the right hemisphere, would receive sensory information only from the right half of the external world.

Acupuncture is an ancient practice that was established to maintain a balance between the yin and the yang. Why is Latin an ideal language from which to derive anatomical terms? TABLE

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