ATLAS BOTANIC PDF

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Atlas Botanic Pdf

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Download Atlas Botanic - High Quality DOWNLOAD PDF - MB. Share Embed Donate. Report this link. Short Description. Download Atlas Botanic. Download phonotadousmo.ga DOWNLOAD PDF - MB. Share Embed Donate. Report this link. Short Description. Download phonotadousmo.ga The botanical atlas: a guide to the practical study of plants containing representatives of the leading forms of plant life with explanatory letterpress /.

The reason for this is 1 to conserve water and 2 to emphasise plants in their natural environment, thus allowing students and visitors to learn more about the vegetation around Windhoek, known as highland savanna.

Objectives To create an awareness of and an appreciation for the Namibian Flora To educate the public, especially the upcoming generation about the importance of plants, the functions and uses of our indigenous plants, plant conservation and related environmental issues To serve as study area for the Namibian Flora, especially the vegetation in and around Windhoek To document the Flora of the Botanic Garden To serve as a training facility where students, researchers, extension personnel and field officers can be trained in plant surveys and plant identification techniques To cultivate plants for the public and promote gardening with indigenous plants To assist in the relocation and re-introduction of rare and threatened species To develop propagation methods for rare and threatened plant species To give a supportive service to the National Herbarium, Vegetation Survey Unit and the National Plant Genetic Resources Centre To serve as a tourist attraction and recreational area.

Things to see and do Walking Photography Relaxation A number of self guided walking trails lead through the garden. The most common woody plants are labelled and bird and plant lists are available at Reception. The garden boasts one of the densest stands of the Windhoek Aloe Aloe littoralis , the symbol of the city of Windhoek.

The quiver tree forest and bottle trees too, are well worth a visit.

They were planted here in the early s and are of exceptional size and beauty. Early in the year, after good rains, you can admire some of our lilies flowering along the Lily Walk. The garden also is home to a variety of mammals, birds, reptiles and insects. Bring along your binoculars and field-guides and do some bird-watching or dassie-spotting. The picnic area provides the perfect spot to end your visit.

Enjoy some cooldrinks and snacks which you need to bring along whilst you relax in the tranquil atmosphere of the garden. Projects for public participation Gathering of on-site information on the birds, insects and animals for information pamphlets Volunteers for the Garden tour guide group.

Morphological aspect of Olea europaea subsp. Olea cerasiformis The Olea europaea subsp. The trunk is 1 - 2. Leaves are oblanceolate to linear in shape, rarely suborbicular; they are 3 - 4 to 8 - 10 cm long and 0. The leaf apex is acuminate and the colour is greyish-green above and paler beneath.

They have a petiole 0. The main vein protrudes on the abassial surface. Flowers are 4 mm in diameter, white; bracteoles are generally present and well developed. The fruit is an ellipsoid drupe; it is 9 - 12 mm in diameter and 12 - 22 mm long. Drupes are green then purplish - black; pulp with a bitter taste Medail et al. Olea guanchica Traditionally wild olive populations present in the Canary Islands are ascribed to the species Olea europaea subsp.

A recent genetic study concluded that populations of Madeira and the Canary Islands were genetically separate enough as to be separated into distinct subspecies, therefore the Canarian wild pass was renamed Olea europaea subsp.

This subspecies is present throughout the islands forming part of transition forests or thermophiles. In Gran Canaria it is very abundant and it can be easily found around the north, forming clumps, but especially in the north-east.

In the south of the island it is much more local and rare. Generally, the trunk is pluricaulous, grey or whitish. Leaves are bright green, oblanceolate to narrowly elliptic, 2 - 3 to 7 - 8 cm long and 0. The apex is mucronate to cuspidate and the colour is greyish-brown above and paler beneath.

Leaves have a petiole 0.

The main vein partly protrudes on the abassial surface. Flowers are 4 - 5 mm in diameter, white; bracteoles not well individualized or missing. The fruit is an ovoid - globose drupe; it is 9 - 12 mm in diameter and 12 - 22 mm in length; their colour is green then purplish - black; pulp with a bitter taste Medail et al. Figure 3. Olea europaea subsp. In fact, it is considered by many authors as a forest tree. With the olive being the most longeve plant crop species, numerous ultra-millennial still living sylvestris trees are present over all the European Mediterranean countries Baldoni et al.

However, forest fires and extensive urbanization that characterize the Mediterranean coast have endangered the sylvestris variety determining a decline of this genetic resource.

The plant is long-lived, despite the difficulty in determining the real age, in many cases it can exceed years old.

The trunk is often twisted and cable, and it can reach a considerable size, up to 15 m in the monumental specimens Baldoni et al. The branches are numerous, they have thorns in young plants, and can have erect, intermediate or pendulous aspect. The bark is gray — ash - colored, more or less smooth in young trees, becoming rough in the adult ones.

The leaves are opposite, leathery, with smooth margin. The lamina is elliptic - lanceolate in shape, the adaxial surphace is green and glabrous, the abaxial one has small silver shield-shaped scales. Flowers are white, pedunculated, very numerous and grouped in axillary racemes inflorescence.

The calix normally has four leaves ovoid, while the corolla, white, is formed by four petals of 2 - 4 mm. There are two stamens per flower, the stigma is bifid and the ovary has four niches.

The fruit is an ovoid-globose drupe; it is 5 - 7 mm in diameter and 10 - 15 mm in length. Pulp is initially green then black - brown at maturity. The endocarp is hard and woody with a single seed, rarely two Camarda et al. Figure 4.

The cultivated olive tree can reach heights ranging from just a few meters to 20 m. The wood resists decay, and when the top of the tree is killed by mechanical damage or environmental extremes, new growth arises from the root system. Whether propagated by seed or cuttings, the root system is generally is shallow, spreading to 0. The above - ground portion of the olive tree is recognizable by the dense assembly of limbs, short internodes, and compact nature of the foliage.

Light does not readily penetrate to the interior of an olive tree unless the tree is well managed and pruned to open light channels toward the foliage. If unpruned, olives develop multiple branches with cascading limbs. The branches are able to carry large populations of fruit on terminal twigs, which are pendulous and flexible - swaying.

Figure 7. Each leaf grows over a 2-year period. Leaves have stomata on their abassial surfaces only. Stomata are nestled in peltate trichomes that restrict water loss and make the olive relatively resistant to drought. Some multicellular hairs are present on leaf surfaces. Olive leaves usually abscise in the spring when they are 2 or 3 years old; however, as with other evergreens, leaves older than 3 years are often present.

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Flower buds are borne in the axil of each leaf. Buds may remain dormant for more than a year and then begin growth, forming viable inflorescences with flowers a season later than expected.

When each leaf axil maintains a developing inflorescence, there are hundreds of flowers per twig. Each inflorescence contains 15 - 30 flowers, depending on the cultivar. Olives are polygamo - monoecious. The flowers are born axially along the shoot, arranged in panicles. Perfect flowers, those with both pistillate and staminate parts, normally consist of a small calyx, 4 petals, 2 stamens with a filament supporting a large pollen-bearing anther, and a plum green pistil with a short thick style and a large stigma.

Perfect flowers are borne apically in an inflorescence, and within the typical triple-flower inflorescence the middle flower is generally perfect. Imperfect flowers are staminate, with the pistil either lacking or rudimentary. The flowers are borne on the inflorescence and are small, yellow-white, and inconspicuous.

The perfect flower is evidenced by its large pistil, which nearly fills the space within the floral tube. The pistil is green when immature and deep green when open at full bloom. Staminate flower pistils are tiny, barely rising above the floral tube base.

The style is small and brown, greenish white, or white, and the stigma is large and plumose in a functioning pistil.

The inductive phase of flowering in the olive may occur as early as July about 6 weeks after full bloom , but initiation is not easily seen until 8 months later in February. Complex microscopic and histochemical techniques reveal evidence of floral initiation by November, but the process of developing all the flower parts starts in March. Some olive cultivars, such as those grown in Crete, southern Greece, Egypt, Israel, and Tunisia, bloom and fruit heavily with very little winter chilling; whereas those originating in Italy, Spain, and California require substantial chilling for good fruiting.

By 14 days after full bloom, most of the flowers destined to abscise have done so. By that time, about , flowers have abscised from a tree that started with , flowers Rosati et al. Cultivars vary, but most abscission occurs soon after full bloom and final fruit set nearly always occurs within 6 weeks of full bloom. Further fruit abscission can result from pest infestation and environmental extremes. Shot berries parthenocarpic fruits occur randomly and for reasons which have not been clearly understood.

When shot berries occur, they may be seen in clusters on each inflorescence. Here, the inter-fruit competition for raw materials differs from that of normal olive fruits. Shot berries mature much earlier than normal fruit and may be more prevalent when conditions favor a second large crop in succession. The olive fruit is a drupe, botanically similar to almond, apricot, cherry, nectarine, peach, and plum fruits.

The olive fruit consists of a carpel, and the wall of the ovary has both fleshy and dry portions. The endocarp pit enlarges to full size and hardens by 6 weeks after full bloom. At that time, the endosperm begins to solidify and embryo development takes place, leading to embryo maturity by September. The mesocarp flesh and exocarp skin continue their gradual growth.

The fruits begin changing from the green color to yellow-white straw and accumulate anthocyanin from the distal or base end. The latter surrounds the tapering, flat leaf like cotyledons, short radicle root , and plumule stem. Seed size and absolute shape vary greatly with cultivar.

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The seed undergoes most of its development starting in July and ending in about September. The fruit is horticulturally mature in October or November in Italy and if harvested and stratified at that time, it will achieve the maximum of germination.

However, seeds are physiologically mature in January or February when its germination is greatly reduced Lagarda et al. Olea europaea L. In fact, the genetic patrimony of the Mediterranean basin olive trees is very rich and is characterised by an abundance of varieties. It is likely that the number of cultivars is underestimated because of inadequate information about minor local cultivars that are widespread in different olive-growing areas.

Current scientific knowledge offers the possibility of introducing new assessment systems, based not only on the varietal character phenology, usually adopted, but also on genetic traits.

For seed production, the fruits should be harvested when ripe, but before they turn black. This period extends from late September to mid-November, depending on the cultivar Largarda et al. Pits are removed from the flesh of the fruit with macerators. Pits can be stored in a dry place for years or planted directly, but germination is slow and uneven. Pre-germination treatments are designed to overcome both seed coat mechanical and embryo dormancy.William T.

Olive Olea europaea L. Olea cuspidate Olea europaea subsp.

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By that time, about , flowers have abscised from a tree that started with , flowers Rosati et al. The parking lot takes up much of the northwestern corner of Queens Botanical Garden.

Olea laperrinei The Olea europaea subsp.

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